Gender-Biased Student/Teacher Interactions
Studies have documented patterns in which teachers . . .
Questions and Answers
- Call on boys more than girls
- Accept boys' called-out answers more than girls'
- Wait longer for boys' answers than girls'
- Give girls more neutral responses ("Okay") and boys more complex responses, both positive and negative
- Frown more during girls' answers than boys'
- Allow themselves to be interrupted more easily when girls are speaking than when boys are
- Look at their watches or a clock more frequently when girls are speaking than when boys are
Praise, Criticism, and Feedback
- Praise girls for the form or appearance of their work, and boys for the content of their work
- Tell boys how to solve problems, but solve the problems for girls: learned helplessness
- Discipline boys more than girls even when they misbehave equally
- Give boys more criticism and corrective feedback
- Position their bodies toward boys more than girls
- Circulate more to boys' seats than to girls' seats, or to the boys' "area" of the room
- Permit students to make gender-biased behaviors or comments to each other
- Give girls fewer experiences with science instruments and equipment
- Allow students to self-segregate by sex
- Allow boys to have more time with scarce classroom resources such as computers or equipment
- Assign different tasks on the basic of gender
data compiled by:
Jo Sanders, 1996
Center for Gender Equity
Washinton Research Institute