EARTH AND MARS LESSONS

 

Interactive Lessons for Internet Use

Marcella Dawson :E-mail;Subject: Space Science; Topic: Mars; July, 1996

Similarities Between Earth and Mars

Does Mars Show Evidence of Plate Tectonics?

Mars Newsletter

 

MARS PROJECT PAGE

MARS NEWSLETTER

 

 

Does Mars Show Evidence of Plate Tectonics?

Natalie Johnson, Meghan Slaughter

St. Anne School

Question: Are there plate tectonics on Mars?

Answer: Yes, there are plate tectonics on Mars. There is a lot of evidence that prove this. When you look at a picture of Mars, you can see that there are mountains and craters or meteors all over the planet. The mountains alone prove that there are at least two plates on Mars because mountains can only be formed by the pushing together of two or more plates with landmasses on them. The craters might easily be the tops of volcanoes. We also know that volcanoes exist because in one of our recent classes we did a lab in which we made "volcanoes" and "mountains" out of cat litter. Then, we measured the flanks of the litter mounds and later pictures of real volcanoes on the computer. One of these was Olympus Mons, which is a volcano on Mars. The left flank's measurement is 33 degrees and the right flank's measurement is 24 degrees. Natalie's and my observation area was a rectangle with the following measurements: latitude-0 , longitude-40 W; latitude-0, longitude-0; latitude-10 S , longitude-40 W; latitude-10 S, longitude-0

From what we observed, this area was covered with mountains and trenches. We also saw what looked like a valley. These, of course are all products of plate tectonics. In conclusion, we know plate tectonics do exist on Mars because of the physical evidence that is similar to that which is found on Earth.

Will Schorp, Anthony chodorowski, Jamie Byrd
St.Anne School
Plate Tectonics on Mars
To answer the question of plate tectonics on Mars we observed the surface of Mars from latitude 70 degrees North to 70 degrees South and longitude 140 degrees West to 220 degrees East. We concluted that there was plate tectonics on Mars. We concluded this because of the information we collected. Now if you would look at the attached sheet that supports our conclusion. The orange on the map represents the mountain formations in the area we selected. This supports our theory that there are plate tectonics because of converging boundries. The green on the map represents the volcanic terrain in the area that our group selected. This also supports that there are diverging boundaries on Mars. The blue line represents ridges in the area our group chose. This is another fact that helps support our conclusion. The last color which is red is representing the fractures on the area which my group slected. This fact also supports our conclusion because fractures are side effects of either a diverging or converging boundry. This is the evidence we collected to prove that there are plate tectonics on Mars.

NAME:Omar Flores, Patrick Callahan, Joe Ruhnke

SCHOOL: St. Anne School

MARTIAN COORDINATES:
10N 150W
40N 150W
40N 120W
10N 120W NOTICE HOW THIS MAKES A SQUARE 9blocks area.

NAMES OF MARTIAN SITES INVESTIGATED:
http://www.mars.nasa2/data.html http://www.nasa.mars.com

SPECIFIC RESEARCH DISCOVERIES:
We discovered that there are more possibilities and evidence for there to be techtonic plates on Mars. Such as volcanoes and faults and trenches. These all support the theory of volcanoes. Also there looks like there is a hot spot just South East of Olympus Mons the biggest volcano in the Universe. We also think that Olympus Mons itself is a hotspot because of its massive plume and base. Its just that the plate is not moving.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
We found many features about magmnitism. One there are polar ice caps on Mars there is a North and South. We found that it takes the same amount of time to revolve aruond the axis as it does on Earth. 24=1 day on Earth and 24=1 day on Mars.

Olympus Mons is a shield volcano We determined that because it had many Flanks and fissures all over it. It has a flat dome, it had steep sides, and it is very tall. This specific characteristic did not support our theory because the volcano could have been occured at a convergent boundry or it could have been made by a hotspot. We also found a trench not far away. This charachteristic totally supports our theory because the only thing that forms a trendh is a convergent boundry. MAN WERE GOOD!!!!! When one plate slides under the other. This means if there is a trench there is a convergent boundry. Which means there is plate movement. Which means there is a plate boundry. Man Patrick put which in here a lot. One more characteristic is that we found a chain of active dormant and exticted volcanoes. But these were in a stright line. It is most obvious that this was formed by a hot spot but there is movement above the candle so that means there is a plate above it . This plate is flanking with Olympus Mons. So in conclusion we our group of Patrick Omar and Joe answere that yes there are plate techtonics on Mars es just dont know how many. We have many pictures but we cant find a way to get them on here.

NAME:Sandy Lee and Desiree Ledet

SCHOOL:St. Anne School

MARTIAN COORDINATES:
latitude:26N longitude:182W
latitude:21N longitude:73W
latitude:17N longitude:186W
latitude:28S longitude:44W
latitude:35N longitude:85S

NAMES OF MARTIAN SITES INVESTIGATED:
The Martian sites investigated were Erebus Montes, Ulysses Patera, Hibis Montes, Nigral Vallis, and three volcanoes by Olympus Mons.

SPECIFIC RESEARCH DISCOVERIES:
On Erebus Montes, a rift valley seemed to have been formed by a divergent boundary. The formation was composed of long linear valleys of an irregular shape. A low elevated split in the crust was present, while the rift continued for miles. At Ulysses Patera, a cinder cone volcano was observed, encircled by a circular land mass. The sides had several lava imprints flowing outwards, on the brood sloping sides, of the dome shaped volcano. Hibis Montes, the next location analized, had a mountain. The mountain had a high elevation with small groups of ridges and peaks. Tiny imprints of lava flows drained down from the sides, that confirms that volcanic eruptions aided in it's formation. At Nigral Vallis, a trench was found with a large elevation difference. The center had a subduction zone, where the two plates met, which was steep. The left end of the trench was connected as you moved further along. The last features examined were the four volcanoes by Olympus Mons. This seemed to be a result of a hotspot, while the plate moved southwest.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
The locations observed were the rift valley, volcano, mountain, trench, and a hotspot. Each of these features have a great possibility of being formed by plate tectonics. All the features had detailed characteristics with a pattern. There were to evidence seen, disproving the theory of plate tectonics on Mars. This concludes that there are plate tectonics on Mars.

NAME :Danny Morales, Matt Perez, and Ricky Hernandez

SCHOOL: St. Anne Catholic School

MARTIAN COORDINATES:
Latitude: 0 to -30 S
Longitude: 130 W to 90 W

NAMES OF MARTIAN SITES INVESTIGATED:
Tharsis Montes: Arsia Mons, Parvonis Mons, and Ascraeus Mons
Olympus Mons
Valles Marineris

SPECIFIC RESEARCH DISCOVERIES:
Arsia Mons:
The circular lines on Arsia Mons are getting smaller as it extends outward. There is a huge valley near this particular mons. This particular mons is a shield volcano.

Parvonis Mons:
The contour lines on Parvonis Mons is getting smaller. The crater at the top is much larger than the one in Arsia Mons. This Mons is also a Shield volcano. Pavonis Mons is following Arsia Mons in a pattern-like formation.

Ascraeus Mons:
Ascraeus Mons is at the top of the trio of this particular volcano chain, following the Arsia and Parvonis Mons. It also is the biggest of the three volcanos. Most likely Ascraeus Mons is an extinct volcano but was once the center of a hot spot.

Olympus Mons:
Olympus Mons is the largest volcano on Mars. It is a very flat volcano but has a fairly gentle surface. Also Olympus Mons has rough, crinkly patches around it. There is a humongous crater at the top of the volcano. It als has the characteristics of a shield volcano. This volcano is an active one.

Tharsis Montes:
The mountains in the Tharsis region resemble a pattern like the one in the Empereor Seamounts on earth. They also formed a pattern showing either a hot spot or a boundary line. All of the volcanos in the Tharsis region are shield volcanos. These mountains are also bordered by a trench called Vales Marineras.

Valles Marineris:
It is a low valley which extends over most of the of the western hemisphere of Mars. Valles Marineris was created by a diverging boundary. Three volcanos surround it: Arsia Mons, Parvonis Mons, and Ascraeus Mons, which were caused by a diverging boundary. Also the Syria Planum, Lunae Planum, Sinai Planum, Solis planum are mostly to the South of the valles.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
All of the mons in the Tharsis Region appear to be shield volcanos because shield volcanos are low, broad, dome-shaped types of volcanos which are identical to the volcanos in the Tharsis Region. Shild volcanos happen along diverging boundaries or a hot spot which can only mean platetectonics occur on Mars. Also, the circular lines on Arsia Mons are getting smaller which means the land is rising and for the land to be rising there has to be movement occurring on the plates Arsia Mons is sitting on. From the following information gathered, we have concluded that platetectonics occur on Mars.

NAME:Scott O'Neil

SCHOOL: St. Anne School, Houston, Texas, United States of America

MARTIAN COORDINATES:
(Presumably) 40 deg. N 120 deg. W
40 deg. N 180 deg. W
80 deg. N 120 deg. W
80 deg. N 180 deg. W
I have (since the writting of the group project) lost the coodinates of my area thus making these coordinates partially correct (10 % chance of error)

NAMES OF MARTIAN SITES INVESTIGATED:
Sites investigated included Hecates Tholus, Stygis Fossae, Ituxi Vallis; Elysium Rupes, Stygis Catena, Patapsco Vallis.

SPECIFIC RESEARCH DISCOVERIES:
I found that Hecates Tholus (10 KM high) had a hole at the top of it signifying the EXTREME possibilty of plate tectonics on Mars. Also, Hecates Tholous seemed to be very wide signifying that it would be a cinder cone type volcano. In order for volcanoes to errupt teh prescence of plate tectonics is ectremely nescessary in orcer to supply enough pressure to release the steam and hot molten rock (lava.)

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
Like I said volcanoes (in my theory) can not happen wihtout plate tectonics. Without it there would be no pressure and land errosion, which are both shown in my presumed area. Disproving the possbility og plate tectonics on Mars, in my mind, is the most craziest thing to disprove since Newton's theory of gravity,. Anything can happen, and on a foreign planet the weirdest things will ocur.

NAME:Megan Coody

SCHOOL:St. Anne School

MARTIAN COORDINATES:
Studied all of Mars, searching for areas of abrubt changes in elevation and areas surrounding craters.

NAMES OF MARTIAN SITES INVESTIGATED:
http://ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/Projects/bayes-group/Atlas/Mars/VSC/views/mi00nxxx/mi 00n 342. html

SPECIFIC RESEARCH DISCOVERIES:
Different landforms and craters. Areas that have no particular names.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
After closely studying areas that indicate signs of compression, I have decided that are plate tectonics on Mars. My conclusion is based on only what I studied. From the data that I collected off of the internet, I have discovered many flat surfaces with rising elevations on each side. This is an indication of compression. There are also stress marks located throughout Mars that are mainly found aorund mountains and other such landforms. On one particular site, I found an area where there are landforms that seem to be moving all in the same direction. They are small ripples or chains of mountains that are moving in the same pattern. This is a large indication that there is compression on Mars. When ripples or hills are formed that move in the same direction and that have a lower elevation in between each of them, this is most likely a sign of compression. Iresearched most of the different locations on Mars. That is why I have no actual site. I have studied all of Mars and I have found definite indication of compression.

NAME:Katie Hodges

SCHOOL:
St. Anne Catholic School

MARTIAN COORDINATES:
Latitude-190 degrees E, Longitude-60 degrees S
Latitude-220 degrees E, Longitude-60 degrees S
Latitude-220 degrees E, Longitude-30 degrees S
Latitude-190 degrees E. Longitude-30 degrees S

NAMES OF MARTIAN SITES INVESTIGATED:
http://ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/bayes-group/Atlas/Mars/vsc/views/mi00nxxx/mi00n342.html

SPECIFIC RESEARCH DISCOVERIES:
Iani & Eos Chasma, Oria & Deuteranilus Colles, Nactis Labyrinth, Protonilus & Aedois Mensa, Charitum Montes, and Rasei Vallis

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
These features are signs of convergent boundries, such as mountains, trenches,valleys,and other seperations. The Iani and Eos Chasma is an area with broken terrain due to the collision of plates. The Oria and Deuteranilus Colles are hills by mountains made by the plates forming mountains. The Nactis Labyrinth is a pattern of valleys in a mountain system made by the collision of convergent boundries. The Protonilus and Aedois Mensa are mesa was a mountain but was worn away. The Charitum Montes is a system of mountains made by a convergent boundry when the plates collide. The Rosei Vallis is another type of valley that has been worn away out of the sides of mountains that were formed by plates colliding.

NAME:Catherine McAnelly, Judy Camarena, Michella Palacios

Data Table:
20 degrees latitude, East
140 degrees longitude, South
1.has lava flows or channels
2.small fault lines
3.summit pits and calderas spotted near the site
has ash deposits near the site
5.low hills
6.erosionhas happened from probably wind or maybe water
7.Olympus Mons is spotted near this site we chose to research.

THERE ARE NO CANALS ON MARS!

Conclusion:
My group and I concluded that Mars only has plate tectonics in certain areas where charaterics of plate tectonics are spotted. The volcanoes formed on Mars, which resemble those of Hawaii, are from hot spots under the Martian crust. They are built from magma chambers under the crust of Mars. Both the plains and the volcanoes are cut by a graben indicating that there is tectonic activity on Mars, in some places, subsequent to where the plains have been placed on Mars. Hot spots do exists on Mars.

The flows of the volcanoes on Mars are much longer than the ones on Earth. Convection occur on Mars where the hot material flows upward and cooler material sink into the interior. This is caused by creating a large-scale circulation known as mantle convection which happens on Mars. This type of mantle flow produces plate tectonics on Earth. In 1988, scientists studied a strike-slip fault it was probably caused by a "Marsquake" that proved that there was plate tectonics on Mars.

The northern half of Mars has a less cratered surface believed to consist of volcanic flows. Two major past volcanic activity have been identified: the Elysium Plateau and the Tharsis bulge. Some of the solar system's largest volcanoes occur on Tharsis. No definite evidence exists of any current volcanic activity anywhere on the plate.

It seems that volcanic activty has ended but we see evidence of enormous volcano remnants on the planet. The absence of a magnetic field and the absence plate tectonics in some places suggests that Mars does not have hot, molten core. Little is known interior of Mars. The palnets low density indicates that Mars cannot have an extensive metallic core. Any core that is present is probably not fluid, because Mars does not have a measurable magnetic field.

NAME: Courtney Williams

SCHOOL: St. Anne Catholic School

MARTIAN COORDINATES:
48 S, 98 W
28 S, 44 W
21 N, 73 W

NAMES OF MARTIAN SITES INVESTIGATED:
Valley of Thaumasia
Nirgral Vallis
Kasei Vallis

SPECIFIC RESEARCH DISCOVERIES:
On all of these sites I have found different specific features such as:
In Valleys of Thaumasia I have discovered Rift Valleys, Craters, Elevation Differences, Evidense of Earthquakes, Fault lines, and Divergent Boundaries.
In the Nirgral Vallis I have also found Rift Valleys, Craters, Flat Surfaces (some)and Volcanic Cones. And Finally on the Kasei Vallis which was also much like the other two sites which had Craters, Faults, Rifts, Volcanic Cones, Valleys, Divergent Boundaries, and Elevation Differences.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
In my opinion on this project I have found EVIDENCE OF TECTONICS in all of the sites that I have researched, I have proven that there are Plate techtonics on Mars.

I believe that there are Plate Techtonics on Mars because I have found extensive evidense that leads me to believe in my conclusion (I have found evidence that match my characteristics on Earth). I have found rift valleys, they indicate extrusions of lava, and volcanos, elevation differences, they indicate convergent boundaries, earthquake movement(evidense), this indicates that there are plates and that they are moving, valleys, these indicate streams of water and occurences of erosion, divergent boundaries, they indicate plate movement away from each other, craters, these can indicate volcanos or meteoric activity, fault lines, these indicate earthquake movement and divergent boundaries,and volcanic cones, which are the types of volcanos,indicate volcanos and volcanic activity.

I have concluded that there are Plate Techtonics on the three sites that I have observed using this information.

Ashley Mayes
St. Anne School, Houston, Texas

Purpose:
The purpose of this project is to convince my reader that there ARE plate tectonics on Mars due to my research. Responsible For:
volcanoes
fallen ash
rocks
At the sites of:
20 degrees North, 135 degrees West-Olympus Mons and -10 degrees South, 110 degrees West-Tharsis Montes

Volcanoes
The volcanoes I studied on Mars show that there are subduction zones. The subduction zones are "lines" of contact between adjacent crustal blocks. The presence of volcanoes can signify convergent and divergent boundaries. The forming of the volcanoes indicates that the volcanoes I studied at the two sites on Mars have ridges supporting their magma flow. From the hardened lava that surrounds some volcanoes it shows that there is viscous lava underneath the surrounding surface (i.e., Olympus Mons). There have to be subduction zones because of the ascent of magma. In both Olympus Mons and Tharsis Montes the lava flow that precedes the building of a volcano shows some definite similarities that occur when a volcano is formed in a formed in a divergent boundary. This theory is only supported by the appearances of my two sites. As you can see, a volcano is a hill or mountain formed around and above vents by accumulation of erupted materials such as ash or lava flow. They are usually formed in chains along some type of subduction zone. As you can also see, Tharsis Montes is a chain of 3 volcanoes and if you locate a map of Mars you notice that there are more volcanoes forming farther along in a pattern away from Tharsis Montesshowing there must be a plate boundary in this area. You could easily hypothesize that the Tharsis Montes were formed along a major fracture zone between plates and have now been buried in by the products of their volcanism. However, the less linear distributive pattern of volcanoes in some areas implies the absence of a segmented lithosphere on Mars. Added to the fact that I believe there are subduction zones on Mars that contain volcanoes, you must know another important fact. Subduction zones generate magma by melting oceanic crust at the top of a descending plate, by ocean sediment dragged to great depths, and by asthenosphere caught between converging plates, which makes you think, "What makes the magma on Mars?"

Fallen Ash & Rocks
Since there are volcanoes on Mars there is ash in the vicinity of these areas. Due to eruptions of the present and past there is fallen ash from the volcanoes and there still are remains of these small particles in the air. What exactly is fallen ash? Fallen ash is pulverized volcanic rock that explodes from a vent in minute fragments. This ash is often composed of rhyolite, dacite, trachyte, and maybe andesite. The relationship of ash to plate tectonics is that it shows whether there are different types rocks that are in the ash that are found in the plates that lye underneath. For instance, you may find a sample of ash from Earth that was found in the general area of a volcano and it would be composed of rhyolite, andesite, and some other minute particle found in the lithosphere. which would signify plate tectonics. Rocks are believed to be on Mars. The rocks on Mars may be just like the Canadian Shield. This means the oldest part of a major crustal plate that is somehow exposed and has rocky-like structure. The rocks have been formed by distinct movements of the plates I believe are there. Rocks are consolidated material of an indefinite structure. From different impressions on Mars you can tell that some type of rock exists and is constantly engraving into the outer surface of the planet. The major crustal plate I believe exists can also be responsible for other formations that signify the presence of rocks (i.e., terracing, and the distinct structure of some flanks on Mars). Ashley Mayes Plate Tectonics on Mars Summary Responsible For: volcanoes fallen ash rocks at the sites of: 20 degrees North, 135 degrees West-Olympus Mons and -10 degrees South, 110 degrees West-Tharsis Montes Purpose: The purpose of this project is to convince my reader that there ARE plate tectonics on Mars due to my research. Sources:

Answer: Yes, there are plate tectonics on Mars. There is a lot of evidence that prove this. When you look at a picture of Mars, you can see that there are mountains and craters or meteors all over the planet. The mountains alone prove that there are at least two plates on Mars because mountains can only be formed by the pushing together of two or more plates with landmasses on them. The craters might easily be the tops of volcanoes. We also know that volcanoes exist because in one of our recent classes we did a lab in which we made "volcanoes" and "mountains" out of cat litter. Then, we measured the flanks of the litter mounds and later pictures of real volcanoes on the computer. One of these was Olympus Mons, which is a volcano on Mars. The left flank's measurement is 33 degrees and the right flank's measurement is 24 degrees. Natalie's and my observation area was a rectangle with the following measurements: latitude-0 , longitude-40 W; latitude-0, longitude-0; latitude-10 S , longitude-40 W; latitude-10 S, longitude-0
From what we observed, this area was covered with mountains and trenches. We also saw what looked like a valley. These, of course are all products of plate tectonics. In conclusion, we know plate tectonics do exist on Mars because of the physical evidence that is similar to that which is found on Earth.

Will Schorp, Anthony chodorowski, Jamie Byrd
St.Anne School
Plate Tectonics on Mars
To answer the question of plate tectonics on Mars we observed the surface of Mars from latitude 70 degrees North to 70 degrees South and longitude 140 degrees West to 220 degrees East. We concluted that there was plate tectonics on Mars. We concluded this because of the information we collected. Now if you would look at the attached sheet that supports our conclusion. The orange on the map represents the mountain formations in the area we selected. This supports our theory that there are plate tectonics because of converging boundries. The green on the map represents the volcanic terrain in the area that our group selected. This also supports that there are diverging boundaries on Mars. The blue line represents ridges in the area our group chose. This is another fact that helps support our conclusion. The last color which is red is representing the fractures on the area which my group slected. This fact also supports our conclusion because fractures are side effects of either a diverging or converging boundry. This is the evidence we collected to prove that there are plate tectonics on Mars.

NAME:Omar Flores, Patrick Callahan, Joe Ruhnke

SCHOOL: St. Anne School

MARTIAN COORDINATES:
10N 150W
40N 150W
40N 120W
10N 120W NOTICE HOW THIS MAKES A SQUARE 9blocks area.

NAMES OF MARTIAN SITES INVESTIGATED:
http://www.mars.nasa2/data.html http://www.nasa.mars.com

SPECIFIC RESEARCH DISCOVERIES:
We discovered that there are more possibilities and evidence for there to be techtonic plates on Mars. Such as volcanoes and faults and trenches. These all support the theory of volcanoes. Also there looks like there is a hot spot just South East of Olympus Mons the biggest volcano in the Universe. We also think that Olympus Mons itself is a hotspot because of its massive plume and base. Its just that the plate is not moving.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
We found many features about magmnitism. One there are polar ice caps on Mars there is a North and South. We found that it takes the same amount of time to revolve aruond the axis as it does on Earth. 24=1 day on Earth and 24=1 day on Mars.

Olympus Mons is a shield volcano We determined that because it had many Flanks and fissures all over it. It has a flat dome, it had steep sides, and it is very tall. This specific characteristic did not support our theory because the volcano could have been occured at a convergent boundry or it could have been made by a hotspot. We also found a trench not far away. This charachteristic totally supports our theory because the only thing that forms a trendh is a convergent boundry. MAN WERE GOOD!!!!! When one plate slides under the other. This means if there is a trench there is a convergent boundry. Which means there is plate movement. Which means there is a plate boundry. Man Patrick put which in here a lot. One more characteristic is that we found a chain of active dormant and exticted volcanoes. But these were in a stright line. It is most obvious that this was formed by a hot spot but there is movement above the candle so that means there is a plate above it . This plate is flanking with Olympus Mons. So in conclusion we our group of Patrick Omar and Joe answere that yes there are plate techtonics on Mars es just dont know how many. We have many pictures but we cant find a way to get them on here.

NAME:Sandy Lee and Desiree Ledet

SCHOOL:St. Anne School

MARTIAN COORDINATES:
latitude:26N longitude:182W
latitude:21N longitude:73W
latitude:17N longitude:186W
latitude:28S longitude:44W
latitude:35N longitude:85S

NAMES OF MARTIAN SITES INVESTIGATED:
The Martian sites investigated were Erebus Montes, Ulysses Patera, Hibis Montes, Nigral Vallis, and three volcanoes by Olympus Mons.

SPECIFIC RESEARCH DISCOVERIES:
On Erebus Montes, a rift valley seemed to have been formed by a divergent boundary. The formation was composed of long linear valleys of an irregular shape. A low elevated split in the crust was present, while the rift continued for miles. At Ulysses Patera, a cinder cone volcano was observed, encircled by a circular land mass. The sides had several lava imprints flowing outwards, on the brood sloping sides, of the dome shaped volcano. Hibis Montes, the next location analized, had a mountain. The mountain had a high elevation with small groups of ridges and peaks. Tiny imprints of lava flows drained down from the sides, that confirms that volcanic eruptions aided in it's formation. At Nigral Vallis, a trench was found with a large elevation difference. The center had a subduction zone, where the two plates met, which was steep. The left end of the trench was connected as you moved further along. The last features examined were the four volcanoes by Olympus Mons. This seemed to be a result of a hotspot, while the plate moved southwest.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
The locations observed were the rift valley, volcano, mountain, trench, and a hotspot. Each of these features have a great possibility of being formed by plate tectonics. All the features had detailed characteristics with a pattern. There were to evidence seen, disproving the theory of plate tectonics on Mars. This concludes that there are plate tectonics on Mars.

NAME :Danny Morales, Matt Perez, and Ricky Hernandez

SCHOOL: St. Anne Catholic School

MARTIAN COORDINATES:
Latitude: 0 to -30 S
Longitude: 130 W to 90 W

NAMES OF MARTIAN SITES INVESTIGATED:
Tharsis Montes: Arsia Mons, Parvonis Mons, and Ascraeus Mons
Olympus Mons
Valles Marineris

SPECIFIC RESEARCH DISCOVERIES:
Arsia Mons:
The circular lines on Arsia Mons are getting smaller as it extends outward. There is a huge valley near this particular mons. This particular mons is a shield volcano.

Parvonis Mons:
The contour lines on Parvonis Mons is getting smaller. The crater at the top is much larger than the one in Arsia Mons. This Mons is also a Shield volcano. Pavonis Mons is following Arsia Mons in a pattern-like formation.

Ascraeus Mons:
Ascraeus Mons is at the top of the trio of this particular volcano chain, following the Arsia and Parvonis Mons. It also is the biggest of the three volcanos. Most likely Ascraeus Mons is an extinct volcano but was once the center of a hot spot.

Olympus Mons:
Olympus Mons is the largest volcano on Mars. It is a very flat volcano but has a fairly gentle surface. Also Olympus Mons has rough, crinkly patches around it. There is a humongous crater at the top of the volcano. It als has the characteristics of a shield volcano. This volcano is an active one.

Tharsis Montes:
The mountains in the Tharsis region resemble a pattern like the one in the Empereor Seamounts on earth. They also formed a pattern showing either a hot spot or a boundary line. All of the volcanos in the Tharsis region are shield volcanos. These mountains are also bordered by a trench called Vales Marineras.

Valles Marineris:
It is a low valley which extends over most of the of the western hemisphere of Mars. Valles Marineris was created by a diverging boundary. Three volcanos surround it: Arsia Mons, Parvonis Mons, and Ascraeus Mons, which were caused by a diverging boundary. Also the Syria Planum, Lunae Planum, Sinai Planum, Solis planum are mostly to the South of the valles.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
All of the mons in the Tharsis Region appear to be shield volcanos because shield volcanos are low, broad, dome-shaped types of volcanos which are identical to the volcanos in the Tharsis Region. Shild volcanos happen along diverging boundaries or a hot spot which can only mean platetectonics occur on Mars. Also, the circular lines on Arsia Mons are getting smaller which means the land is rising and for the land to be rising there has to be movement occurring on the plates Arsia Mons is sitting on. From the following information gathered, we have concluded that platetectonics occur on Mars.

NAME:Scott O'Neil

SCHOOL: St. Anne School, Houston, Texas, United States of America

MARTIAN COORDINATES:
(Presumably) 40 deg. N 120 deg. W
40 deg. N 180 deg. W
80 deg. N 120 deg. W
80 deg. N 180 deg. W
I have (since the writting of the group project) lost the coodinates of my area thus making these coordinates partially correct (10 % chance of error)

NAMES OF MARTIAN SITES INVESTIGATED:
Sites investigated included Hecates Tholus, Stygis Fossae, Ituxi Vallis; Elysium Rupes, Stygis Catena, Patapsco Vallis.

SPECIFIC RESEARCH DISCOVERIES:
I found that Hecates Tholus (10 KM high) had a hole at the top of it signifying the EXTREME possibilty of plate tectonics on Mars. Also, Hecates Tholous seemed to be very wide signifying that it would be a cinder cone type volcano. In order for volcanoes to errupt teh prescence of plate tectonics is ectremely nescessary in orcer to supply enough pressure to release the steam and hot molten rock (lava.)

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
Like I said volcanoes (in my theory) can not happen wihtout plate tectonics. Without it there would be no pressure and land errosion, which are both shown in my presumed area. Disproving the possbility og plate tectonics on Mars, in my mind, is the most craziest thing to disprove since Newton's theory of gravity,. Anything can happen, and on a foreign planet the weirdest things will ocur.

NAME:Megan Coody

SCHOOL:St. Anne School

MARTIAN COORDINATES:
Studied all of Mars, searching for areas of abrubt changes in elevation and areas surrounding craters.

NAMES OF MARTIAN SITES INVESTIGATED:
http://ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/Projects/bayes-group/Atlas/Mars/VSC/views/mi00nxxx/mi 00n 342. html

SPECIFIC RESEARCH DISCOVERIES:
Different landforms and craters. Areas that have no particular names.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
After closely studying areas that indicate signs of compression, I have decided that are plate tectonics on Mars. My conclusion is based on only what I studied. From the data that I collected off of the internet, I have discovered many flat surfaces with rising elevations on each side. This is an indication of compression. There are also stress marks located throughout Mars that are mainly found aorund mountains and other such landforms. On one particular site, I found an area where there are landforms that seem to be moving all in the same direction. They are small ripples or chains of mountains that are moving in the same pattern. This is a large indication that there is compression on Mars. When ripples or hills are formed that move in the same direction and that have a lower elevation in between each of them, this is most likely a sign of compression. Iresearched most of the different locations on Mars. That is why I have no actual site. I have studied all of Mars and I have found definite indication of compression.

NAME:Katie Hodges

SCHOOL:
St. Anne Catholic School

MARTIAN COORDINATES:
Latitude-190 degrees E, Longitude-60 degrees S
Latitude-220 degrees E, Longitude-60 degrees S
Latitude-220 degrees E, Longitude-30 degrees S
Latitude-190 degrees E. Longitude-30 degrees S

NAMES OF MARTIAN SITES INVESTIGATED:
http://ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/bayes-group/Atlas/Mars/vsc/views/mi00nxxx/mi00n342.html

SPECIFIC RESEARCH DISCOVERIES:
Iani & Eos Chasma, Oria & Deuteranilus Colles, Nactis Labyrinth, Protonilus & Aedois Mensa, Charitum Montes, and Rasei Vallis

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
These features are signs of convergent boundries, such as mountains, trenches,valleys,and other seperations. The Iani and Eos Chasma is an area with broken terrain due to the collision of plates. The Oria and Deuteranilus Colles are hills by mountains made by the plates forming mountains. The Nactis Labyrinth is a pattern of valleys in a mountain system made by the collision of convergent boundries. The Protonilus and Aedois Mensa are mesa was a mountain but was worn away. The Charitum Montes is a system of mountains made by a convergent boundry when the plates collide. The Rosei Vallis is another type of valley that has been worn away out of the sides of mountains that were formed by plates colliding.

NAME:Catherine McAnelly, Judy Camarena, Michella Palacios

Data Table:
20 degrees latitude, East
140 degrees longitude, South
1.has lava flows or channels
2.small fault lines
3.summit pits and calderas spotted near the site
has ash deposits near the site
5.low hills
6.erosionhas happened from probably wind or maybe water
7.Olympus Mons is spotted near this site we chose to research.

THERE ARE NO CANALS ON MARS!

Conclusion:
My group and I concluded that Mars only has plate tectonics in certain areas where charaterics of plate tectonics are spotted. The volcanoes formed on Mars, which resemble those of Hawaii, are from hot spots under the Martian crust. They are built from magma chambers under the crust of Mars. Both the plains and the volcanoes are cut by a graben indicating that there is tectonic activity on Mars, in some places, subsequent to where the plains have been placed on Mars. Hot spots do exists on Mars.

The flows of the volcanoes on Mars are much longer than the ones on Earth. Convection occur on Mars where the hot material flows upward and cooler material sink into the interior. This is caused by creating a large-scale circulation known as mantle convection which happens on Mars. This type of mantle flow produces plate tectonics on Earth. In 1988, scientists studied a strike-slip fault it was probably caused by a "Marsquake" that proved that there was plate tectonics on Mars.

The northern half of Mars has a less cratered surface believed to consist of volcanic flows. Two major past volcanic activity have been identified: the Elysium Plateau and the Tharsis bulge. Some of the solar system's largest volcanoes occur on Tharsis. No definite evidence exists of any current volcanic activity anywhere on the plate.

It seems that volcanic activty has ended but we see evidence of enormous volcano remnants on the planet. The absence of a magnetic field and the absence plate tectonics in some places suggests that Mars does not have hot, molten core. Little is known interior of Mars. The palnets low density indicates that Mars cannot have an extensive metallic core. Any core that is present is probably not fluid, because Mars does not have a measurable magnetic field.

NAME: Courtney Williams

SCHOOL: St. Anne Catholic School

MARTIAN COORDINATES:
48 S, 98 W
28 S, 44 W
21 N, 73 W

NAMES OF MARTIAN SITES INVESTIGATED:
Valley of Thaumasia
Nirgral Vallis
Kasei Vallis

SPECIFIC RESEARCH DISCOVERIES:
On all of these sites I have found different specific features such as:
In Valleys of Thaumasia I have discovered Rift Valleys, Craters, Elevation Differences, Evidense of Earthquakes, Fault lines, and Divergent Boundaries.
In the Nirgral Vallis I have also found Rift Valleys, Craters, Flat Surfaces (some)and Volcanic Cones. And Finally on the Kasei Vallis which was also much like the other two sites which had Craters, Faults, Rifts, Volcanic Cones, Valleys, Divergent Boundaries, and Elevation Differences.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
In my opinion on this project I have found EVIDENCE OF TECTONICS in all of the sites that I have researched, I have proven that there are Plate techtonics on Mars.

I believe that there are Plate Techtonics on Mars because I have found extensive evidense that leads me to believe in my conclusion (I have found evidence that match my characteristics on Earth). I have found rift valleys, they indicate extrusions of lava, and volcanos, elevation differences, they indicate convergent boundaries, earthquake movement(evidense), this indicates that there are plates and that they are moving, valleys, these indicate streams of water and occurences of erosion, divergent boundaries, they indicate plate movement away from each other, craters, these can indicate volcanos or meteoric activity, fault lines, these indicate earthquake movement and divergent boundaries,and volcanic cones, which are the types of volcanos,indicate volcanos and volcanic activity.

I have concluded that there are Plate Techtonics on the three sites that I have observed using this information.

Ashley Mayes
St. Anne School, Houston, Texas

Purpose:
The purpose of this project is to convince my reader that there ARE plate tectonics on Mars due to my research. Responsible For:
volcanoes
fallen ash
rocks
At the sites of:
20 degrees North, 135 degrees West-Olympus Mons and -10 degrees South, 110 degrees West-Tharsis Montes

Volcanoes
The volcanoes I studied on Mars show that there are subduction zones. The subduction zones are "lines" of contact between adjacent crustal blocks. The presence of volcanoes can signify convergent and divergent boundaries. The forming of the volcanoes indicates that the volcanoes I studied at the two sites on Mars have ridges supporting their magma flow. From the hardened lava that surrounds some volcanoes it shows that there is viscous lava underneath the surrounding surface (i.e., Olympus Mons). There have to be subduction zones because of the ascent of magma. In both Olympus Mons and Tharsis Montes the lava flow that precedes the building of a volcano shows some definite similarities that occur when a volcano is formed in a formed in a divergent boundary. This theory is only supported by the appearances of my two sites. As you can see, a volcano is a hill or mountain formed around and above vents by accumulation of erupted materials such as ash or lava flow. They are usually formed in chains along some type of subduction zone. As you can also see, Tharsis Montes is a chain of 3 volcanoes and if you locate a map of Mars you notice that there are more volcanoes forming farther along in a pattern away from Tharsis Montesshowing there must be a plate boundary in this area. You could easily hypothesize that the Tharsis Montes were formed along a major fracture zone between plates and have now been buried in by the products of their volcanism. However, the less linear distributive pattern of volcanoes in some areas implies the absence of a segmented lithosphere on Mars. Added to the fact that I believe there are subduction zones on Mars that contain volcanoes, you must know another important fact. Subduction zones generate magma by melting oceanic crust at the top of a descending plate, by ocean sediment dragged to great depths, and by asthenosphere caught between converging plates, which makes you think, "What makes the magma on Mars?"

Fallen Ash & Rocks
Since there are volcanoes on Mars there is ash in the vicinity of these areas. Due to eruptions of the present and past there is fallen ash from the volcanoes and there still are remains of these small particles in the air. What exactly is fallen ash? Fallen ash is pulverized volcanic rock that explodes from a vent in minute fragments. This ash is often composed of rhyolite, dacite, trachyte, and maybe andesite. The relationship of ash to plate tectonics is that it shows whether there are different types rocks that are in the ash that are found in the plates that lye underneath. For instance, you may find a sample of ash from Earth that was found in the general area of a volcano and it would be composed of rhyolite, andesite, and some other minute particle found in the lithosphere. which would signify plate tectonics. Rocks are believed to be on Mars. The rocks on Mars may be just like the Canadian Shield. This means the oldest part of a major crustal plate that is somehow exposed and has rocky-like structure. The rocks have been formed by distinct movements of the plates I believe are there. Rocks are consolidated material of an indefinite structure. From different impressions on Mars you can tell that some type of rock exists and is constantly engraving into the outer surface of the planet. The major crustal plate I believe exists can also be responsible for other formations that signify the presence of rocks (i.e., terracing, and the distinct structure of some flanks on Mars). Ashley Mayes Plate Tectonics on Mars Summary Responsible For: volcanoes fallen ash rocks at the sites of: 20 degrees North, 135 degrees West-Olympus Mons and -10 degrees South, 110 degrees West-Tharsis Montes Purpose: The purpose of this project is to convince my reader that there ARE plate tectonics on Mars due to my research. Sources:

 

These pages authored and maintained by Marcella Dawson. Revised 06/23/99. Copyright 1995 CRPC GirlTECH. All rights reserved. . Email your comments. These pages were developed through GirlTECH '96, a teacher training and student technology council program sponsored by the Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center.
These pages authored and maintained by Marcella Dawson. Revised 02/15/99. Copyright 1995 CRPC GirlTECH. All rights reserved. . Email your comments. These pages were developed through GirlTECH '96, a teacher training and student technology council program sponsored by the Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center.