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Cells Project Internet Resources

History of the light microscope

The microscope has become one of the most recognizable symbols of science. This paper covers the early history of the microscope, starting with use of a simple lens in ancient times, to the first compound microscope circa 1590, up to the microscopes of the 19th century


Welcome to an On-Line Biology Book Table of Contents. Click on the underlined items to go to those chapters. The text items are modified lecture outlines I have developed over the many years of teaching freshman-level biology. Use for educational purposes is encouraged and appreciated. Many illustrations are taken off the web, and I have indicated the source page (when that page still is an active link) and tried to provide a link back to the original.


The CoopBIODIDAC, formed in February 1999, is opened to a larger audience. If you want more than images and are willing to contribute some teaching material, the CoopBIODIDAC could help you do great things!

Fluorescence Combination Microscopy

This tutorial explores combinations of fluorescence microscopy with additional contrast-enhancement techniques using both phase contrast and differential interference contrast (DIC) methods.

The Virtual Microscope
This is an incredible site! Dennis Kunkel Ph.D. is an award winning photomicrographer with technical training in many types of microscopy (optical, transmission & scanning electron, and specialized microscopies). His professional background includes 25 years of research in botany, zoology, microbiology, and neurobiology

Introductory Biology

Welcome to the Bowdoin Introductory Biology webpage, designed to help students in Bio 104 with comprehending the basics of biology. Obviously, this page is not meant to replace going to class but is simply meant to act as a supplement to the material presented by Professors Johnson and Phillips. The class is divided up into the general topics that you will cover over the course of the semester, withy each topic including helpful instructional tools, web links, previous class exam questions and lecture notes. I hope this site helps you this semester

The Virtual Cell Web Page: Chapter Three: Cell Biology

Check out the cell above. Like all cells it has three main areas: The cell membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus. You can investigate any one of these areas. If you know nothing about the structure of the cell it would probably be smart to go through the pages in the order presented. (just like you would read your regular text book). If you are looking for a particular topic go to the index below and click directly on that topic.

Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, The Cell

This unit on the chemistry of the cell is being developed in order to aid the students with limited backgrounds in verbal skills, reading skills, and writing skills to understand.

DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis: The Revolution in Biology

The genetic material is DNA. The determination of the Structure suggested how DNA might serve as genetic information. Proof that DNA served as a template for DNA Replication confirmed these ideas.

DNA Replication

Meselson and Stahl in 1957 gave experimental evidence that each DNA strand served as a template for new synthesis, a process called semi-conservative replication.

Cellular Biology

A visual tour inside the cell that highlights each organelle.

BGSU Center for Algal Microscopy and Image Digitization

This Page is the "Gateway" to our archive of 185+ digitized images. The archive consists mostly of light images of cleaned diatoms generated by myself and Rex Lowe. There's also an archive of diatom scanning electron micrographs. The light images are archived by collection site. Any image may be freely used for educational and noncommercial purposes, however, we do reserve all commercial rights.

Cell Biology interactive testing, lessons, video, images, and discussions.

This web page provides local and distant links to resources for students studying cell structure and function. While some students using this webpage are students in courses taught by Dr. Randall Oelerich (creator and webmaster of this site), anybody is encouraged to make use of the resources here.

Cell Structure and images

Study outlines, practice exams, interactive quizzes, message boards, chat, clip-art, images, tutorials, and many other resources to help students learn and teachers teach.

CELLS alive! :

CELLS alive! is provided free of charge for your unlimited online use. Students and teachers are encouraged to incorporate individual images in class reports, projects, homework, and lectures.

CELLS alive! is ©Quill Graphics in Charlottesville, Virginia USA, providing stock video microscopy of living subjects for educational and broadcast use. The CELLS alive! stock video library includes footage related to microbiology, cell biology, aquatic protozoa, water-borne parasites, infectious disease, and immunology.


Scientific estimates place the origin of the Universe at between 10 and 20 billion years ago. The theory currently with the most acceptance is the Big Bang Theory, the idea that all matter in the Universe existed in a cosmic egg (smaller than the size of a modern atom) that exploded, forming the modern Universe.


by David J. Bogler Division of Biological Sciences The University of Texas at Austin

Chapter 1 Types of Cells

The major differences between Prokaryotic and Eukarotic cells are that prokaryotes don't have a nucleus and rarely have membrane bound organelles, (the only exception I have heard of is bacteria with vacuoles). The both do have DNA for genetic material, have a exterior membrane, have ribosomes, accomplish similar functions, and are very diverse. For instance, there are over 200 types of cells in the human body, that very greatly in size, shape, and function.

Chapter 2 Parts of the cell

Chapter 2.1 Phospholipid-Cell Membrane

The phospholipid bilayer which the cell membrane is an example of, is composed of various cholesterol, phospholipids, glycolipids and proteins. Below is an example of a simple phospholipid bilayer.

Characteristics of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

There are two general classes of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. The evolution of prokaryotic cells preceded that of eukaryotic cells by 2 billion years.


The type of cell used for this project is a stereotypical plant cell (shown above). The entire cell is surrounded by a cell wall, a stiff layer of cellulose. Immediately inside the cell wall, also encompassing the cell, is the cell membrane. Immediately inside of that are the various Other cell sites, with actual pictures of what a plant cell looks like, are a available.

General Electron Micrography images

Index of -biology-images-cellular

Good source for images of cells as well as images of scientists.

MAD.SCI ENTIST Library: Cell Biology

In our excursions around the web we have come across more than a few exemplary sites that are not only educational, but fun and interactive. We list sites specifically dedicated to science education and the development of science fair projects. Links are also organized relative to specific branches of science such as chemistry and physics. Within each page sites have been organized into five groups.

Microscopes, Cells, DNA and You

All lessons are provided in our lesson plan format and are designed for you to easily use. Overheads and handouts necessary to complete each lesson are included at the end of each document. We encourage you to duplicate each lesson for educational purposes. You may download an individual lesson by scrolling to the end of that lesson's web page and clicking on the lesson title.


Mitosis is the process by which cells divide. The parent cell has already duplicated its chromosomes , providing both daughter cells with a complete copy of genetic information.

MSFC Image Archive - Home

The Marshall Space Flight Center's Microgravity Science Image Archive cantains images associated with microgravity science experiments. This archive is part of NASA's ongoing effort to track and house science data generated during microgravity flight experiments.

Nucleus IMap

This is a transmission electron micrograph of tissue removed from the small intestine of a mouse and magnified approximately 26,000 times. Note that at least portions of 3 cells (A,B, and C) appear in the micrograph. Micrograph courtesy of Dr. Kit W. Lee, UNL School of Biological Sciences.

organelle links

Pea Soup - Mendel's Discoveries

MENDEL chose a common garden pea (Pisum) for his first experiments in hybridisation. These plants exhibited what are now called "Mendilian Traits" - traits which occur in a very simple form. A simple trait in an organism is one which occurs either in one variation or another, with no in-between.

Pea Soup - The Story of Mendel

Picture It -- Graphics for Bio Teachers

This site is for biology teachers who want to tap the graphic resources of the internet but don't have a lot of time to surf. It's not meant to be comprehensive. It's only meant to bring you the best images to help make your teaching more effective.

The Bioactive Site

The Bioactive Site is an ongoing project of Dr. Rick Hershberger, Assistant Professor of Biology at Carlow College in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is my collection of lecture notes, lab activities, learning materials, courseware, and web links for learning and teaching biology. Please feel free to e-mail me ( with any comments, suggestions, or questions you have. Visit my home page, The Professor's Office, for my online teaching portfolio. I hope you find the Bioactive Site useful and informative.

The Biology Project Biochemistry

Welcome to The Biology Project, an interactive online resource for learning biology developed at The University of Arizona. The Biology Project is fun, richly illustrated, and tested on 1000s of students. It has been designed for biology students at the college and high school level, but is useful for medical students, physicians, science writers, and all types of interested people.

The Cell Cycle & Mitosis Tutorial

The nucleus is a membrane bound organelle that contains the genetic information in the form of chromatin, highly folded ribbon-like complexes of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and a class of proteins called histones.

The Cell Nucleus I

Cell Biology is a multidisciplinary Ph.D Graduate program at The University of Texas Medical Branch., Galveston, Texas. This Program is part of the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences. The academic program provides training in a variety of disciplines using experimental approaches in Cell and Molecular Biology

The Cell

Welcome to The Cell web site. Enter this realm of microbiology carefully, for the motive behind every exciting page is to educate you about the world of cells!

The Nanoworld Image Gallery

The Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis is an interdisciplinary research and service facility dedicated to an understanding of the structure and composition of all materials at atomic, molecular, cellular and macromolecular scales .

Topic Index - Cells

Educators and students can stop here for valuable, relevant information about teaching and learning developmental biology-from the kindergarten through college levels. Sections cover books, videos, and CD-ROMs; courses and resources on the web; labs; "Ask a Developmental Biology Question"; exam questions, and hints to enliven lectures. This is the Education section of the main web site for the Society for Developmental Biology.


Virtual Cell

Here are some hints for navigation: the general way of moving around the cell is by clicking it with your mouse when moving forward, make sure you have the intended action selected (e.g. choose Cut if you want to see the inside of the cell) before clicking the image if you do not want to jump to a specific view, make sure Search window says: nothing you can move back with your browser's Back or Go command

Animal Cells

This schematic represents an idealized animal cell, e.g., a liver cell. The columns to the left and right of the labels contain links to discussions of the particular structures


These pages authored and maintained by Marcella Dawson. Revised 10/29/99 . Copyright © 1995 CRPC GirlTECH. All rights reserved. . Email your comments. These pages were developed through GirlTECH '96, a teacher training and student technology council program sponsored by the Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center.