Multimedia in an Educational Setting
Power Point; Part 2

What is Instructional Design?
 
Instructional Design as a Process:
Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities.
 
Instructional Design as a Discipline:
Instructional Design is that branch of knowledge concerned with research and theory about instructional strategies and the process for developing and implementing those strategies.
 
Instructional Design as a Science:
Instructional Design is the science of creating detailed specifications for the development, implementation, evaluation, and maintenance of situations that facilitate the learning of both large and small units of subject matter at all levels of complexity.
 
Instructional Design as Reality:
Instructional Design can start at any point in the design process. Often a glimmer of an idea is developed to give the core of an instruction situation. By the time the entire process is done the designer looks back and she or he checks to see that all parts of the "science" have been taken into account. Then the entire process is written up as if it occurred in a systematic fashion.


A Comparison of Traditional and Systematic Instruction

from Hannum, W., & Briggs, L. (1982). How does instructional systems design differ from traditional instruction? Educational Technology, 22, 12-13.

 

 Component of Instruction

 

Traditional Instruction

 

Systematic Instruction

Setting Goals Traditional curriculum
Textbook
Internal referent
Needs assessment
Job analysis
External referent
Objectives Stated in terms of global outcomes of teacher performance
Same for all students
From needs assessment/job analysis
Stated in terms of student performance
Chosen with consideration for students' entering competencies
Student's knowledge of objectives Not informed; must intuit from lectures and textbooks Specifically informed in advance of learning
Entering capability Not attended to
All students have same objectives, materials and activities
Taken into account
Differential assignment of materials and activities
Expected achievement Normal curve Uniform high level
Mastery Few students master most objectives
Hit or miss pattern
Most students master most objectives
Grading and Promotion Based on comparison wih other students Based on mastery of objectives
Remediation Often not planned
No alteration of objectives or instructional means
Planned for students who need help
Pursue other objectives
Use alternate instructional means
Use of tests Assignment of grades Monitor learning progress
Determine mastery
Diagnose difficulty
Revise instruction
Study time vs. Mastery Time constant; degree of mastery varies Mastery constant; time varies
Interpretation of failure to reach mastery Poor student Need to improve instruction
Course development Materials selected first Objectives stated first, then selection of materials
Sequence Based on logic of content and outlines of topics Based on necessary prerequisites and principles of learning
Instructional strategies "Across the board" favorite
Based on preference and familiarity
Use of various strategies
Based on theory and research
Evaluation Often does not occur; rarely systematically planned
Norm-referenced
Data on inputs and processes
Systematically planned; routinely occurs
Assesses student mastery of objectives
Criterion-referenced
Data on outcomes
Revision of instruction and materials Based on guesswork or availability of new material Based on evaluation data

 


Generic Phases of the Instructional Design Process

This generic model is a simplified version of a very complex and often lengthy systematic process of designing instruction. It is unlikely that it would be used as illustrated without revision. It does provide, however, an overview of the process.
 

 R

E

V

I

S

I

O

N

Instructional Analysis
What are the objectives of the instruction?
Instructional Design
How are the objectives going to be achieved?
What is the learning strategy?
Instructional Development
What is the appropriate medium for instruction?
Instructional Implementation
How will the instruction and accompanying materials be implemented in a real-world situation?
Instructional Evaluation
How will the instruction and accompanying materials be evaluated?
Is the instruction adequate?

 



Overview of the Development Model


Conducting a Needs Assessment

These Multimedia Development Tools were created by Jeff Heidler of the Multimedia in Manufacturing Education Lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology from Version 0.9 of an electronic performance support system by Tom Reeves and Fred Brackett:

Needs Assessment Matrix
http://mime1.marc.gatech.edu/MM_Tools/NAM.html
The "Needs Assessment Matrix" is a simple tool that suggests different ways of
gathering information regarding audiences, tasks, and content while conducting a needs assessment for an interactive multimedia development project. The easiest way of obtaining needs assessment information is to interview people, but interviews have limitations as well. The ideal procedure is to "triangulate" the information you need by collecting it via two or more ways.
 
Needs Assessment Decision Aid
http://mime1.marc.gatech.edu/MM_Tools/NADA.html
The "Needs Assessment Decision Aid" is a tool designed to help you select the best method (or methods) for collecting information during the needs assessment portion of your analysis effort. There are three primary information collection methods described in this tool: focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires. Each has advantages and disadvantages. The tool includes a list of questions that when you answer them should assist you in selecting the preferred method of collecting the needs assessment data you desire. Of course, if personnel, temporal, and financial resources permit, it is sound policy to use two or three methods to collect needs data so as to "triangulate" your findings.
 
Needs Focus Group Protocol
http://mime1.marc.gatech.edu/MM_Tools/NFGP.html
The "Needs Focus Group Protocol" is a tool that provides:
1. background information about focus groups as a method of collecting needs
assessment data,
2. an actual sample focus group protocol,
3. references to additional information about this data collection method.
 
Needs Interview Protocol
http://mime1.marc.gatech.edu/MM_Tools/NIP.html
The "Needs Interview Protocol" is a tool that provides:
1. background information about interviews as a method of collecting needs assessment data,
2. an actual sample interview protocol,
3. references to additional information about this data collection method.
 
Needs Questionnaire
http://mime1.marc.gatech.edu/MM_Tools/NQ.html
The "Needs Questionnaire" is a tool that provides:
1. background information about questionnaires as a method of collecting needs
assessment data,
2. an actual sample questionnaire,
3. references to additional information about this data collection method.

The Learning Environment

The learning environment includes a description of where the instructional product will be used. 


 

The description attempts to answer specific questions about how the materials will be used, such as:

  1. What are the characteristics of the teachers/trainers who will be using these materials?
     
  2. Does this material need to fit into a larger curricula?
     
    If so, what is the philosophy, strategy, or theory of this existing curricula?
     
  3. What hardware and software is available to deliver these materials?
     
  4. What are the characteristics of the rooms, buildings, and facilities where these materials will be delivered?
     
  5. What are the characteristics including philosophy and mission of the school system or organization in which the delivery of these materials and instruction will take place?
     
  6. What is the underlying theory and philosophy of the larger, surrounding community in which the organization or school system exists?

Conducting a Task Analysis

The key part of task analysis is to break complex skills down into smaller component skills. These skills then determine an effective teaching sequence.

Effective teaching sequence should first teach teach skills that only require that a student use and combine skills they already have. Then the sequence should progressively add new skills and combine them with previous skills until the terminal objective is reached.

The Task analysis is usually performed in reverse, however, beginning at the end with the terminal objective and working backward through the component skills. Those component skills are broken down again into subordinate skills continuing until a previous skill level, a known skill, is reached. Known skills are skills that a student already has acquired or can perform; these skills are often called entry level skills.


The Evaluation Process

Phase 1: The Quality Review Phase

In this phase the lesson is subjected to quality control procedures. This phase is organized in seven parts and is illustrated in the following diagram.

   

Phase 2: Pilot Testing

In this phase the lesson is tested by representatives of your target population while you monitor their progress and performance.

This phase can be divided into seven steps:

  1. Select the helpers
     
  2. Explain the procedure to them
     
  3. Find out how much of the subject matter they know already
     
  4. Observe them go through the lesson
     
  5. Interview them afterwards
     
  6. Assess their learning
     
  7. Revise the lesson.

This phase is illustrated in the following diagram:

 Phase 3: Validation

The final phase of the evaluation process is validation. This process involves testing the lesson in a real instructional setting. This part of the process is frequently known as field testing.

Evaluate how the students perform in the setting for which you are teaching them. This phase typically obtains three types of data:

  1. Obtain as much performance data as you can from different sources
     
  2. Obtain data on student achievement due to the lesson
     
  3. Obtain data on student attitudes towards the lesson

The Evaluation Process - continued

Total Points: 90 possible

Assignment 8: Determine Needs and Goals (10 points possible)
  Informal Needs Assessment Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
  Learning Environment Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
  Learners Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
Assignment 9: Collect Resources (10 points possible)
  Materials relevant to the subject matter Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
  Materials relevant to the instructional development and teaching process Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
  Materials relevant to the delivery system(s) for your instruction Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
Assignment Ten: Learn the Content (10 points possible)
  Description of content Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
Assignment Eleven: Generate Ideas (10 points possible)
  List 1: Ideas about information to be taught Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
  List 2: Ideas for teaching information in list 1 Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
Assignment Twelve: Design Instruction (10 points possible)
  Eliminate bad ideas: Create List 3 Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
  Order, refine, and combine the ideas in List 3 Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
  Task or Concept Analysis Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
  Preliminary Lesson Description Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
Assignment Thirteen: Design Structures (10 points possible)
  Flow Chart Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
  Storyboard Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
Assignment Fourteen: Support Materials
  Support Materials Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
Assignment Fifteen: Evaluation
  Choice of Evaluator Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
  Summary of evaluation Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
  Recommendations for Improvement Excellent Goo Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found
Part 4: Notebook
 

Quality of Notebook

Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs More Work Not Found

 


Flowchart for SOS for Business: The Survey

Flowchart for the Interactive Frog Web Site



The interactive, hypertext version of the program is located at the University of Virginia
http://curry.edschool.Virginia.EDU/go/frog/

 

Storyboards

What is a storyboard?
A storyboard is a plan of the project, usually on paper, which contains details of the actual screen displays. It is important to remember that a storyboard is a preliminary design and will change as the product is developed.

Why create a storyboard?
A storyboard may be helpful for individuals who have difficulty visualizing how the interface of the final product may look and operate. During the storyboard stage, it is simple to change and rearrange elements of each screen or view.

How can a storyboard be created?

A storyboard may be produced on paper or by using a computer program that either creates a prototype or a simpler version of the final product.

What does a storyboard include?
A storyboard includes any information that would be useful in creating the final product including specific notes for the developers such as programmers, graphic designers and videographers.

Several elements should be included in a storyboard:

  • the number of levels and the branching paths,
  • the rough layout of each major screen,
  • the placement and usage of the different elements such as audio, video, and animation,
    the use of color, and
  • the placement of icons and navigation elements such as buttons, arrows and menus.

    What does a storyboard look like?





   
   

 

top