Notes on the readings

  • Define technology
  • Tell the difference between science and technology
  • Describe technology as an evolving, dynamic area of knowledge
  • Describe technology in the industrial and the information age
Technology is defined as humans using objects to change the natural and human-made environment.
Technology is:
  • human knowledge
  • uses tools, materials, systems
  • application results in artifacts or other outputs
  • developed by people to modify or contro the environment
  • Discuss technology as a response to human needs
  • Describe technology as a human-made system
  • Discuss the parts of technological systems
  • Describe teh two major types of processes used by technology
  • Discuss the outputs of technology.
  • Describe feedback as it is used in technological systems
All technological systems...
  • arise out of human need
  • are designed and developed by people
  • integrate resources to produce outputs
  • have consequences for people, society, and the environment
  • evaluated by people
  • are modified or abandoned in time

Technology Systems include:
  • Goals
  • Inputs
  • Processes
  • Outputs
  • Feedback

  1. Inputs are the elements that flow into the system and are consumed or processed by the system.
  2. Materials are all natural matter that is directly or indirectly used by the system.
  3. Tools are the technological means that must be present before we have technology
  4. Energy is the ability to do work
  5. Information is organized data
  6. Finances are the money and c#FF9900it necessary for an economic system
  7. Time: all jobs or activities take time.
  • Describe technology in terms of level of developement, economic structure, number of people involved, and type of product or service produced
  • Discuss high technology and the developement of society
  • Describe the three stages of developing and operating technology by a private enterprise
Technology can be grouped in 4 ways:
  • Level of developement
  • Economic structure
  • Number of people involved
  • Type of technology developed and used
Level of Developement:
  1. obsolete technology- those technologies that can no longer efficiently meet human needs for products and services
  2. current technology- the range of technogies used to produce most of the products and services today.
  3. emerging technology- the new technologies that are not widely employed today
Economic Structure:
  • Research and Developement: Designing, developing, and specifying the characteristics of the product, structure, or service.
  • Production: Developing and operating systems for producing the product, structure, or service
  • Marketing: Promoting, selling, and delivering the product, structure, or service
  • Describe the seven inputs to technological systems.
  • Describe the role and types of energy as inputs to technological systems
  • Describe data, information, and knowledge as inputs to technological systems.
  • List and describe the types of machines
  • Explain how time is an input to technological systems
  • Describe all inputs.
Inputs to Technological Systems:
  • People
  • Machines and tools
  • Materials
  • Information
  • Energy
  • Finances
  • *Time*

Machines are:
Tool + Mechanism = Machine

People are grouped into 6 categories:
  1. Scientists
  2. Engineers
  3. Technologists
  4. Workers
  5. Managers/Entrepreneurs
  6. Consumers
The six basic mechanisms are:
  • Lever
  • Wheel and Axle
  • Pulley
  • Inclined Plane
  • Wedge
  • Screw
All technological systems involve inputs which are processed into outputs.
  • Define and describe the major types of technological processes
  • List and describe the steps in the problem solving/design process.
  • Explain the major production steps used in the communication, construction, manufacturing, and transportation processes.
  • Describe management as a technological process
  • Diagram the relationship between problem solving, production, and management processes
  • Apply technological processes to everyday activities.
The three technological processes are:
  1. Design/Problem Solving- Steps include:
    • Identifying/Understanding the problem
    • Developing multiple solutions
    • Isolating and detailing the best solution
    • Modeling and evaluating the selected solution
    • Communicating the final solution
  2. Transformation- Different processes can be used, is also called Production Processes.
  3. Management- Steps:
    • Planning
    • Organizing
    • Actuating
    • Controlling

    The types of Transformation processes include:
    • Communication Processes- exchanging information or ideas. For telecommunications, the steps are:
      • Encoding
      • Transmitting
      • Recieving
      • Storing/Retrieving
      • Decoding
    • Manufacturing Processes- Subcategories
      • Obtaining Resources
        • Harvesting
        • Mining
        • Drilling
      • Primary Processing
      • Secondary Process
    • Transportation Processes- Transportation modes:
      • Land
      • Water
      • Air
      • Structure
      • Propulsion
      • Guidance
      • Control
      • Suspension
      • Pathways
      • Terminals
  • Describe the major types of outputs of technology systems.
  • Differentiate between desi#FF9900 and undesi#FF9900 outpts of technological systems.
  • List the major types of control that are exercised on technology systems
  • Discuss the positive and negative aspects of control on technological systems
  • Discuss the relationships between outputs, feedback, and control.
  • Explain how people and society control technology
Types of Control Systems:
  • Open-loop control- uses no feedback to compare the results with the goal.
  • Closed-loop control- systems using feedback.
Components of Control Systems:
  • Monitering Devices...include:
    • Mechanical Sensors
    • Thermal Sensors
    • Optical Sensors
    • Electrical or electronic sensors
    • Magnetic sensors
  • Data comparing devices
  • Adjusting Devices....
    • Mechanical Controllers- using cams, levers, and other types of linkages to adjust machines or other devices.
    • Electromechanical Conrollers- Using electromagnetic coils and forces to move control linkages and operate switches to adjust machine or other devices.
    • Electrical and electronic controllers- using electrical and electronic devices to adjust machines or other devices.
    • Fluidic controllers- Using fluids, including oil (hydroaulic), and air (pneumatic) to adjust machines or other devices.
2 Control Systems:
  • Manual Control Systems require humans to adjust the processes
  • Automatic Control systems are used to monitor, compare, and adjust the systems without human inference.

Unit 4 Energy and Power Chapter Outline and TYK

  • Define Transportation and transportation technology
  • List and describe the parts of a transportation system.